Vaccine are those substances that includes live or attenuated forms of microorganisms that fight against a disease. Vaccines helps to stimulate the immune system of the body. Vaccines have antigens similar to those present on the surface of disease-causing organisms. Theses vaccines triggers the human body to produce antibodies against the reaction of the antigens by forming the antigen-antibody bond. After vaccination when a person gets infected with disease the antibodies that are developed fight the disease and protect the human body. Vaccines develop a long-lasting active immunity. Edward Jenner was the one who first used vaccine against smallpox disease and gave the term “Vaccine”.
The process of injecting vaccines to develop the immune system strong is termed as vaccination. Vaccination is done in form of injection. Vaccinology is the study of disease preventing vaccines and its impact on immune system and how the immune system reacts back.
Types of Vaccines :
Live attenuated vaccine-
They include weakened form of live virus which produce response against disease without causing it. A strong immune response is created due to this vaccine. These vaccines should not be used against immune compromised patients. Chicken pox and MMR (measles, mumps and rubella)
This vaccine contains dead or killed whole virus particles. They are safer as they already are dead virus vaccine. Since the immunity developed by these vaccines is little low
as compared to live vaccines,
they require the booster dose. Covaxin (covid 19 vaccine) is an example of inactivated vaccine.
Viral vector vaccine-
This vaccine uses safe virus to deliver viral vector proteins inside the body of diseased. This protein in turn triggers the body’s immune response. These viral vectors can be replicating or non-replicating as well. Replicating are strong vaccines but non replicating need booster doses. Ebola vaccine comes under non replicating vector vaccine. Veterinary medicines use replicating vaccines. Covishield (covid 19 vaccine) is example of viral vector using weakened strain of adenovirus.
These vaccines use antigenic protein instead of genetic material from disease causing virus. They are safer as no genetic material is used. Although they require more doses for safer protection. These vaccines include recombinant vaccine, toxoid vaccine and conjugate vaccine.
They use bacterial or yeast cell to produce them. A fraction of DNA is inserted into manufacturing cell from virus or bacterium. Hepatitis B, Pertussis and Human Papilloma virus (HPV) are its examples.
They use toxoid to induce immune response to protect against disease which are produced by toxins from disease causing organism. Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine.
It produce immune response when week polysaccharide antigen and strong carrier antigens combines. HiB vaccine and PVC vaccine are some examples.
Nucleic acid vaccines-
It includes DNA and RNA vaccine. These vaccines include genetic information against the antigen to produce immune response. These can be quickly developed and easy to produce.
Corona Virus vaccine covishield
Importance of Vaccine
· Infants have week immune system hence they are recommended vaccine for saving their lives.
· Dreadful disease such as polio can be prevented using vaccines.
· Vaccine protects from disease thereby saving our money in turn.
· All vaccines are safe to use. Even the covaxin and covishield that are being used for protecting against deadly corona virus are safe to be administered.
· Vaccination drive can help to eradicate diseases if properly and timely taken.
· Vaccines are boon for our life. Don’t give ear to unnecessary things instead protect your life by taking the vaccines.